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2020 Vol. 84(1) 96-113

Etzel Cardeña, Ph.D.
Parapsychology Press


Dagnall, N., Elliott, C., Drinkwater, K., Denovan, A., and Parker, A.  (2020). Predictors of Hearing Electronic Voice Phenomena in Random  Noise: Schizotypy, Fantasy Proneness, and Paranormal Beliefs. Journal of Parapsychology, 84, 96-113.


Predictors of Hearing Electronic Voice Phenomena in Random Noise: Schizotypy, Fantasy Proneness, and Paranormal Beliefs

Neil Dagnall, Claire Elliott, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Denovan, and Andrew Parker

Manchester Metropolitan University

This study used a modified White Christmas task to examine reports of  electronic voice phenomena (EVP) within random noise. Following  familiarization with the concept of EVP, 107 participants listened to an  audio track combining white and pink noise. Instructions directed  participants to press a keyboard button to indicate if they heard EVP.  At the end of the track, participants provided an overall confidence  rating of EVP perception. Thirty-nine participants (36%) reported the  presence of EVP. Comparisons between EVP experiencers vs.  non-experiencers on cognitive-perceptual (schizotypy, hallucinations,  and fantasy proneness) and paranormal belief measures (general and  haunting) revealed no significant differences. A path analysis indicated  that belief in haunting mediated the relations between paranormal  belief and hallucination proneness with EVP outcomes (number and  confidence). However, fantasy proneness and schizotypy did not have  significant relations with EVP. Results were consistent with previous  findings, where participants imagine hearing the famous White Christmas  song. Within this study, a non-trivial minority of participants  experienced EVP as a form of belief congruent hallucination. These  findings support the notion that anomalous beliefs provide a framework  for structuring unusual cognitions and perceptions.


Auditory hallucinations, belief in the paranormal, Electronic Voice Phenomena, fantasy proneness, White Christmas task.

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