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2020 Vol. 84(1) 21-37

Etzel Cardeña, Ph.D.
Parapsychology Press


Watt, C., Dawson, E., Tullo, A., Pooley, A., and Rice, H. (2020).  Testing Precognition and Alterations of Consciousness with Selected  Participants in the Ganzfeld. Journal of Parapsychology, 84, 21-37.


Testing Precognition and Alterations of Consciousness with
Selected Participants in the Ganzfeld

Caroline Watt, Emily Dawson, Alisdair Tullo, Abby Pooley,  and Holly Rice

University of Edinburgh

This study is the first to contribute to a registration-based  prospective meta-analysis of ganzfeld Extrasensory Perception (ESP)  studies. We sought to maximize the anticipated psi effect size by  selecting participants for self-reported creativity, prior psi  experience or belief, or practice of a mental discipline. We also  employed an automated precognition design for simplicity and security,  and to add to the small database of precognitive ganzfeld studies.  Targets and decoys were short video clips randomly selected with  replacement from a pool of 200. As well as predicting overall  significant scoring on the ganzfeld precognition task, the study tested  the assumption that the ganzfeld method elicits a psi-conducive altered  state of consciousness, by correlating two measures of an Altered State  of Consciousness (ASC) with precognition task performance. We predicted  higher target similarity ratings would be associated with greater  evidence of ASC during the session. Three experimenters each conducted  20 trials. Twenty-two direct hits were obtained (37% hit-rate), thus  significantly supporting the planned test of the ganzfeld precognition  task (exact binomial p = .03, 1-tailed). No relation was found between  ASC and psi task performance, contrary to prediction. We conclude by  discussing the reasons why further ganzfeld ESP research is justified.


Ganzfeld, precognition, meta-analysis, prospective meta-analysis, study registration

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