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2019 Vol. 83(2) 208-231

Etzel Cardeña, Ph.D.
Parapsychology Press


McClenon, J. (2019). Secondary Analysis of Sitter Group Data: Testing Hypotheses from the PK Literature. Journal of Parapsychology, 83, 209-231.


Secondary Analysis of Sitter Group Data:
Testing Hypotheses from the PK Literature

James McClenon

 Psychical researchers offer a schema for investigating group  psychokinesis (PK). Sitter groups put their hands on a table and, after  socialization, report PK experiences. Batcheldor, Lucadou, Richards, and  McClenon devised theories regarding this process. This endeavor  resulted in hypothesis testing and theory revision. Although theories  diverge, observations support two basic arguments: (1) Most people  inhibit PK, while a minority facilitate it (facilitation-suppression  theory), (2) group participation involving artifacts, shared ideology,  quantum processes, and rapport facilitates PK (interaction theory). The  Society for Research on Rapport and Telekinesis (SORRAT), founded by the  author/poet John G. Neihardt in 1961, kept experimental notes  evaluating levitation success for over four decades. Available notes  allowed testing four formal hypotheses and various exploratory  hypotheses derived from the two theories. Although evaluations supported  the formal hypotheses, exploratory findings: (1) supported the  facilitation-suppression theory, (2) failed to support the interaction  hypothesis, (3) supported elements within the original theories. A  revised theory offers testable hypotheses and suggestions for future  research.


psychokinesis, sitter groups, artifact induction, ritual healing theory, pragmatic information model

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