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2018 Vol. 82(1) 41-64

Etzel Cardeña, Ph.D.
Parapsychology Press


Schofield, M.B, Baker, I.S., Staples, P., & Sheffield, D. (2018).  Creation and Validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale. Journal of Parapsychology, 82, 41-64.


Creation and Validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale

Malcolm B. Schofield, Ian S. Baker, Paul Staples, and David Sheffield

University of Derby

This study aimed to create and validate a new scale, the “Belief in the  Supernatural Scale.” Study one used an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA)  to reduce an initial item pool of 71 items to 44 and to identify a  factor structure with 382 participants. A five factor structure was  proposed: “mental and psychic phenomena,” “religious belief,”  “psychokinesis,” “supernatural entities,” and “common paranormal  perceptions.” We then analyzed the proposed scale in study two using a  Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with 318 new participants. The new  scale provides a wide range of items and indicates that while religious  and paranormal beliefs show a clear division, spiritual belief is spread  among those factors, indicating that spirituality might be the concept  that links religiosity and paranormality. The Belief in the Supernatural  Scale (BitSS) provides a valuable tool that can be used alone, or  alongside previous measures, for research into supernatural belief.


supernatural belief, religious belief, paranormal belief, spiritual belief, scale development

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