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2018, Vol. 82, No. 1, 41-64


Schofield, M.B, Baker, I.S., Staples, P., & Sheffield, D. (2018). Creation and Validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale. Journal of Parapsychology, 82, 41-64.

Editor-in-Chief Etzel Cardeña, Ph.D.
© Rhine Research Center

Creation and Validation of the Belief in the Supernatural Scale

Malcolm B. Schofield, Ian S. Baker, Paul Staples, and David Sheffield

University of Derby

Abstract: This study aimed to create and validate a new scale, the “Belief in the Supernatural Scale.” Study one used an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) to reduce an initial item pool of 71 items to 44 and to identify a factor structure with 382 participants. A five factor structure was proposed: “mental and psychic phenomena,” “religious belief,” “psychokinesis,” “supernatural entities,” and “common paranormal perceptions.” We then analyzed the proposed scale in study two using a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with 318 new participants. The new scale provides a wide range of items and indicates that while religious and paranormal beliefs show a clear division, spiritual belief is spread among those factors, indicating that spirituality might be the concept that links religiosity and paranormality. The Belief in the Supernatural Scale (BitSS) provides a valuable tool that can be used alone, or alongside previous measures, for research into supernatural belief.

Keywords: supernatural belief, religious belief, paranormal belief, spiritual belief, scale development

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