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2019 Vol. 83(1) 47-68

Etzel Cardeña, Ph.D.
Parapsychology Press


Langston, W., and Hubbard, T. (2019). Shadow Walking:
Will a Ghost Walk Tour Affect Belief in Ghosts?. Journal of Parapsychology, 83, 47-68.


Shadow Walking:
Will a Ghost Walk Tour Affect Belief in Ghosts?

William Langston and Tyler Hubbard

Middle Tennessee State University

There is a strong relation between personal experience and belief in  ghosts. The research reported here investigated whether other people’s  experiences conveyed in a ghost walk tour could also influence belief.  We surveyed participants before and after a ghost tour to evaluate  changes in belief as a result of the tour. For participants who started  out lower on ghost belief, the tour did increase their belief. The tour  had no effect on non-ghost related paranormal beliefs. The data were  evaluated against a model suggesting that the variables influencing the  updating of beliefs are different from the variables related to the  formation of belief. The model provided a good account for the data and  suggests directions for future research.


ghost belief, paranormal experience, others’ experience

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