2020, Vol. 84, No. 1, 66/84
Cardeña, E., and Marcusson-Clavertz, D. (2020). Changes in State of Consciousness and Psi in Ganzfeld and Hypnosis Conditions. Journal of Parapsychology, 84, 66-84. http://doi.org/10.30891/jopar.2020.01.07
Changes in State of Consciousness and Psi
in Ganzfeld and Hypnosis Conditions
Etzel Cardeña and David Marcusson-Clavertz
Abstract. In a previous experiment with participants high (Highs) and low (Lows) in hypnotizability, psi z scores had moderate to strong correlations with percipients’ belief of their success and their previous ostensible psi experiences, experiencing an Altered State of Consciousness and other alterations of consciousness during a non-psi ganzfeld session, but only among the Highs. The current pre-registered study had a larger N of only Highs, evaluated in hypnosis and hypnosis + ganzfeld procedures. Participants (N = 35) served as “receivers” in two 20 min sessions of ganzfeld or hypnosis in counterbalanced order. Both sessions used hypnosis verbalizations, but only one of them had sensory homogenization. The authors served as “sender” and “experimenter” in different buildings. As an index of experienced alterations of consciousness, participants filled out the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory (PCI) at the beginning and end of the sessions, and gave a rating of 0-100 to 4 film clips (one of them the target), from which psi z scores were derived. Overall, participants did not score better than chance and there was no difference between the conditions. However, for the ganzfeld sessions psi scores correlated moderately (r = .40, p = .02) with the PCI Altered State shift scores (ganzfeld - baseline scores). Although the overall psi rate was not significant, we found a relation between psi scoring and experiencing an Altered State in ganzfeld psi sessions.
Keywords: Ganzfeld, hypnosis, altered state of consciousness, state shift